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The screen of the Midnight Commander is divided into four parts. You must be a valid member to participate in the election and to serve on the Board. Partial words can be used and this is one of the few places in Unix where upper and lower case are allowed to match each other. Das Script wird anstelle der Argumentenliste bei einem anderen Kommando eingesetzt, z. Note that this requirement does not force the separation of )) because the shell is able to distinguish the termination of arithmetic from that of nested subshells.

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They are interpreted by the shell and then executed by the shell. Shell scripts do not need to be compiled Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( WRX STI ) Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( WRX STI ) pdf. In what follows, I describe and give some examples of a few customizations. I have been using iTerm instead of Apple's Terminal.app for several years. One of the main advantages of this over the Terminal.app that comes with OS X is the tabbed window feature. It has many other features that I also like, including selection to copy text, middle-button-paste, transparency, bookmarks, etc , cited: A Bacteriological Study of Shell, Frozen, and Desiccated Eggs: Made Under Laboratory Conditions at Washington, D. C (Classic Reprint) click A Bacteriological Study of Shell, Frozen, and Desiccated Eggs: Made Under Laboratory Conditions at Washington, D. C (Classic Reprint). That is, if the environment variables are set, then there is no need to execute the uname program: The "-a" Bourne shell option says to mark all modified variables for auto-export. This script tests three environment variables, and if not defined, it sets these variables , source: Snap-on Series Plastic Back download for free read Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( Poke Monster Red Goldfish ) pdf. This file calling method was widely used around and the programmer just need to amend the script.sql for changes. Some programmer or System Administrator wants to maintain single file which was the Unix shell script and embed the SQL script if possible. The following of the Unix shell script shows how we can call the SQL command by using the EOF execution method. Remember, it is not mandatory to use the word “EOF” in your shell script Mastering Korn Shell read pdf click Mastering Korn Shell Programming Instruction Manual. uniq # we can get rid of cat by specifying arguments to sort: $ sort set1 set2 Some MacOS filesystems and interfaces forbid “:” in a name (it’s the directory separator). Microsoft Windows’ Explorer interface won’t let you begin filenames with a space or dot, and Windows also restricts these characters: Also, in Windows, \ and / are both interpreted as directory name separators, and according to that page there are some issues with “.”, “[”, “]”, “;”, “=”, and “,” read AWK Programming Guide: A Practical Manual For Hands-On Learning of Awk and Unix Shell Scripting by Mark Stevens (2013-09-15) online.

However if there are other parameters on the command line, expanding this variable equals all of the command line parameters, like $1, $2, $3, etc. If $* is surrounded by quotes ("$*"), it equals all of the parameters as one value, separated by the default field separator (IFS - usually a space, tab or newline), like "$1 $2 $3" 2. @: The @ variable expands the same as the * variable when called without quotes as $@ ref.: LINUX & UNIX Shell Programming download for free read online LINUX & UNIX Shell Programming (00) by Tansley, David [Paperback (2000)]. This has the nice side effect that xml-cat becomes idempotent just like the cat is in coreutils. While this idea is seductive, it has one small problem, namely it can destroy the validity of an XML document , source: Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( Sci Fi Scneses ) Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( Sci Fi Scneses ) pdf, azw (kindle), epub, doc, mobi. The cornerstone of the Sun is offering the system of enterprise-class Solaris Operating System (OS), the # 1 UNIX environment. Solaris provides the cutting edge of innovation with scalability, availability, performance, and security on SPARC, AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon-based systems Snap-on Series Plastic Back download online Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( Poke Monster ) for free.

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Create your first file using the pico text editor: The pico editor fills the entire console window. You can type text and move the cursor around with the arrow keys; the bottom of the screen presents the commands available , e.g. [ [ [ Unix Shell 4e W/Ol[ UNIX SHELL 4E W/OL ] By Burns, Richard ( Author )Jul-25-1997 Paperback download online [ [ [ Unix Shell 4e W/Ol[ UNIX SHELL 4E W/OL ] By Burns, Richard ( Author )Jul-25-1997 Paperback. There’s no reason anyone needs tab or newline in filenames, as noted above, so that leaves us with the space character. There are a lot of existing Unix/Linux shell scripts that presume there are no space characters in filenames. Many RPM spec files’ shell scripts make this assumption, for example (this can be enforced in their constrained environment, but not in general) Learn KORN Shell and AWK read for free Learn KORN Shell and AWK Scripting By Example: A Cookbook of Advanced Scripts For Unix and Linux Environments book. Once it boots you should be able to start a terminal where you can run the commands, if the OS is installed. The program should be called either a gnome-terminal or konsole, but it might be in the menus as just “Terminal” download AWK Programming Guide: A Practical Manual For Hands-On Learning of Awk and Unix Shell Scripting by Mark Stevens (2013-09-15) epub. To do the same things within SFTP on your own machine, add an l to the front of the commands: lcd, lmkdir, lls ref.: Shell Software Guide C download here click Shell Software Guide C Floating and Sinking: Booklet (Softlab). Perl::Critic, Perl::Tidy, Devel::Cover, Devel::NYTProf, Pod::Coverage, ...) needed to support programming in the large. Finally, shell has fewer reusable libraries available. Shell has nothing comparable to Perl's CPAN. Even if the script is small, don't write it in shell unless you're really sure that it will remain small ref.: Snap-on Series Plastic Back read epub click Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( Cookie Monster ). Server Fault is a question and answer site for system and network administrators. Join them; it only takes a minute: This question might be a little naive, but is there one shell that tends to be the most popular among Unix/Linux users? My previous company was basically standardized on tcsh, so I learned that one for-better-or-worse, but I'm wondering if I should learn bash, ksh, or any other, if those tend to be more common Snap-on Series Plastic Back download here Snap-on Series Plastic Back Case Shell Skin Cover for SONY Xperia C S39H C2305 , ( Churchill British ) for free. The variable i is set to the names of files in time order, most recent first. � set `date`; echo $6 $2 $3, $4 The shell is a macro processor that provides parameter substitution, command substitution and file name generation for the arguments to commands Mastering Unix Shell download online Mastering Unix Shell Scripting(Second Edition)(Chinese Edition) pdf, azw (kindle), epub, doc, mobi.

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With this book, you'll see how it can be done in less than 75 lines total. Also, if you're interested in receiving a review copy or would just like to drop me a note to say hi, please don't hesitate to pop over to my contact page, or explore my weblog, always full of some interesting and enlightening discussion or 'tother. On the Operations Manager 2012 Release Candidate download page there is a file named Microsoft read online AWK Programming Guide: A Practical Manual For Hands-On Learning of Awk and Unix Shell Scripting by Mark Stevens (2013-09-15) pdf, azw (kindle). Such behavior can be suppressed by using the dot command, which is a dot and a space placed before a command. Execute doecho by starting it with a dot and a space, then echo the value of $PLACE when doecho is complete. In this example, shell one recognizes $PLACE as having been given the value "Pasadena". Normally, when a shell discovers that the command to execute is a shell script, it would spawn a child shell and that child would read in the script as commands Bourne Shell Tutorial read online Bourne Shell Tutorial for free. Right now you may or may not see any files-not seeing any files doesn't mean you don't have any! Just plain ls won't list hidden files (files whose names start with ``.'', like .login). Now try typing: Don't actually type the % symbol! Remember, that's the computer's prompt which indicates it is ready to accept input Vijay Mukhi's UNIX Shells download here download online Vijay Mukhi's UNIX Shells online. L asked: I am interested in following an online course, so I would appreciate if if you could please send me the cost structure and how the course is scheduled, so can I register and do modules and lessons as and when I have the time, say in the evening, or are the lessons done at set times for me to join download AWK Programming Guide: A Practical Manual For Hands-On Learning of Awk and Unix Shell Scripting by Mark Stevens (2013-09-15) pdf. Thanks to Rob Weemhoff for the corrections. This document was translated by troff2html v0.21 on June 28, 2001. table of contents copyright 1 about the authors 3 we want to hear from you 4 chapter 1 introduction 5 chapter 2 a quick review of the basics 8 some basic commands 8 working with files 9 working with directories 12 filename substitution 23 standard input/output and i/o redirection 26 pipes 29 standard error 32 more on commands 32 command summary 34 exercises 34 chapter 3 what is the shell 36 the kernel and the utilities 36 the login shell 37 typing commands to the shell 40 the shell s responsibilities 42 chapter 4 tools of the trade 47 regular expressions 47 cut 57 paste 60 sed 62 tr 64 grep 68 sort 73 uniq 76 exercises 78 chapter 5 and away we go 80 command files 80 variables 83 built-in integer arithmetic 89 exercises 90 chapter 6 can i quote you on that 92 the single quote 92 the double quote 95 the backslash 97 command substitution 99 exercises 105 chapter 7 passing arguments 106 the variable 107 the variable 108 a program to look up someone in the phone book 108 a program to add someone to the phone book 109 a program to remove someone from the phone book 111 n 112 the shift command 112 exercises 113 chapter 8 decisions decisions 115 exit status 115 the test command 118 the else construct 126 the exit command 128 the elif construct 129 the case command 132 the null command 138 the and constructs 138 exercises 140 chapter 9 round and round she goes 142 the for command 142 the until command 147 more on loops 151 the getopts command 155 unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. exercises 158 chapter 10 reading and printing data 160 the read command 160 the printf command 173 exercises 176 chapter 11 your environment 178 local variables 178 exported variables 181 ps1 and ps2 185 home james 185 your path 186 your current directory 191 more on subshells 193 your .profile file 200 the term variable 201 the tz variable 201 exercises 202 chapter 12 more on parameters 203 parameter substitution 203 the $0 variable 208 the set command 208 the ifs variable 212 the readonly command 215 the unset command 215 exercises 215 chapter 13 loose ends 218 the eval command 218 the wait command 220 the trap command 220 more on i/o 223 functions 228 the type command 231 exercises 231 chapter 14 rolo revisited 232 design considerations 232 rolo 233 add 235 lu 236 display 236 rem 237 change 238 listall 239 sample output 240 exercises 242 chapter 15 interactive and nonstandard shell features 244 getting the right shell 245 the env file 245 command-line editing 246 command history 246 the vi line edit mode 247 the line edit mode 250 other ways to access your history 253 functions 255 integer arithmetic 255 the alias command 258 arrays 260 job control 264 the restricted shell rsh 266 miscellaneous features 268 compatibility summary 269 exercises 270 appendix a shell summary 272 startup 272 commands 272 comments 273 parameters and variables 273 command re-entry 275 quoting 277 filename substitution 279 i/o redirection 279 exported variables and subshell execution 280 unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. functions 280 job control 281 command summary 281 appendix b for more information 302 online documentation 302 documentation on the web 302 books 303 bvdindexindex 305 unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. ix copyright copyright © 2003 by sams publishing all rights reserved no part of this book shall be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted by any means electronic mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without written permission from the publisher no patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein library of congress catalog card number 2002115932 printed in the united states of america first printing march 2003 06 05 04 03 4 3 2 1 trademarks all terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized sams publishing cannot attest to the accuracy of this information use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark warning and disclaimer every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible but no warranty or fitness is implied the information provided is on an as is basis the authors and the publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book credits acquisitions editor katie purdum development editor scott meyers managing editor charlotte clapp copy editor geneil breeze indexer erika millen proofreader unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. copyright x jessica mccarty technical editor michael watson interior designer gary adair cover designer gary adair page layout susan geiselman dedication to my father harry wood patrick wood to gregory linda and julia for giving meaning to my life stephen g kochan licensed by terry wyatt 2330833 unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. xi about the authors stephen g kochan is the owner of techfitness a technology-based fitness company prior to that he was president and ceo of pipeline associates a company specializing in color printing software mr kochan is the author of several best-selling books on unix and c programming including the best-selling programming in c he also acted as series editor for the hayden unix system library patrick wood is the cto of the new jersey location of electronics for imaging he was a member of the technical staff at bell laboratories when he met mr kochan in 1985 together they founded pipeline associates inc a unix consulting firm where he was the vice president they coauthored exploring the unix system unix system security topics in c programming and unix shell programming unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. 1 chapter 1 introduction it s no secret that the unix operating system has emerged as a standard operating system for programmers who have been using unix for many years now this came as no surprise the unix system provides an elegant and efficient environment for program development after all this is what dennis ritchie and ken thompson strived for when they developed unix at bell laboratories in the late 1960s one of the strongest features of the unix system is its wide collection of programs more than 200 basic commands are distributed with the standard operating system these commands also known as tools do everything from counting the number of lines in a file to sending electronic mail to displaying a calendar for any desired year but the real strength of the unix system comes not entirely from this large collection of commands but also from the elegance and ease with which these commands can be combined to perform far more sophisticated functions to further this end and also to provide a consistent buffer between the user and the guts of the unix system the kernel the shell was developed the shell is simply a program that reads in the commands you type and converts them into a form more readily understood by the unix system it also includes some fundamental programming constructs that let you make decisions loop and store values in variables the standard shell distributed with unix and linux systems derives from at&t s distribution which evolved from a version originally written by stephen bourne at bell labs since then the ieee created standards based on the bourne shell and the other more recent shells the current version of this standard as of this revision is the shell and utilities volume of ieee std 1003.1-2001 also known as the posix standard this shell is what we propose to teach you about in this book the examples in this book were tested on both sunos 5.7 running on a sparcstation ultra-30 and on silicon graphics irix 6.5 running on an octane some examples were also run on red hat linux 7.1 and cygwin all examples except some bash examples in chapter 15 were run using the korn shell although many were also run with bash many unix systems are still around that have bourne shell derivatives and utilities not compliant with the posix standard we ll try to note this throughout the text wherever possible however there are so many different versions of unix from so many different vendors that it s simply not possible to mention every difference if you do have an older unix system that doesn t supply a posixcompliant shell there s still hope we ll list resources at the end of this book where you can obtain free copies of three different posix-compliant shells because the shell offers an interpreted programming language programs can be written modified and debugged quickly and easily we turn to the shell as our first choice of programming language after you become adept at programming in the shell you too may turn to it first unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. introduction 2 this book assumes that you are familiar with the fundamentals of the unix system that is that you know how to log in how to create files edit them and remove them and how to work with directories but in case you haven t used the unix system for a while we ll examine the basics in chapter 2 a quick review of the basics besides the basic file commands filename substitution i/o redirection and pipes are also reviewed in chapter 2 chapter 3 what is the shell reveals what the shell really is you ll learn about what happens every time you log in to the system how the shell program gets started how it parses the command line and how it executes other programs for you a key point made in chapter 3 is that the shell is just a program nothing more nothing less chapter 4 tools of the trade provides tutorials on tools useful in writing shell programs covered in this chapter are cut paste sed grep sort tr and uniq admittedly the selection is subjective but it does set the stage for programs that we ll develop throughout the remainder of the book also in chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of regular expressions which are used by many unix commands such as sed grep and ed chapters 5 through 10 teach you how to put the shell to work for writing programs you ll learn how to write your own commands use variables write programs that accept arguments make decisions use the shell s for while and until looping commands and use the read command to read data from the terminal or from a file chapter 6 can i quote you on that is devoted entirely to a discussion on one of the most intriguing and often confusing aspects of the shell the way it interprets quotes by this point in the book all the basic programming constructs in the shell will have been covered and you will be able to write shell programs to solve your particular problems chapter 11 your environment covers a topic of great importance for a real understanding of the way the shell operates the environment you ll learn about local and exported variables subshells special shell variables such as home path and cdpath and how to set up your .profile file chapter 12 more on parameters and chapter 13 loose ends tie up some loose ends and chapter 14 rolo revisited presents a final version of a phone directory program called rolo that is developed throughout the book chapter 15 interactive and nonstandard shell features discusses features of the shell that either are not formally part of the ieee posix standard shell but are available in most unix and linux shells or are mainly used interactively instead of in programs appendix a shell summary summarizes the features of the ieee posix standard shell appendix b for more information lists references and resources including the web sites where different shells can be downloaded the philosophy this book uses is to teach by example properly chosen examples do a far superior job at illustrating how a particular feature is used than ten times as many words the old a picture is worth adage seems to apply just as well to examples you are encouraged to type in each example and test it on your system for only by doing can you become adept at shell programming you also should not be afraid to experiment try changing commands in the program examples to see the effect or add different options or features to make the programs more useful or robust at the end of most chapters you will find exercises these can be used as assignments in a classroom environment or by yourself to test your progress this book teaches the ieee posix standard shell incompatibilities with earlier bourne shell versions are noted in the text and these tend to be minor unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. introduction 3 acknowledgments from the first edition of this book we d like to thank tony iannino and dick fritz for editing the manuscript we d also like to thank juliann colvin for performing her usual wonders copy editing this book finally we d like to thank teri zak our acquisitions editor and posthumously maureen connelly our production editor these two were not only the best at what they did but they also made working with them a real pleasure for the first revised edition of this book we d like to acknowledge the contributions made by steven levy and ann baker and we d like to also thank the following people from sams phil kennedy wendy ford and scott arant for the second revised edition of this book we d like to thank kathryn purdum our acquisitions editor charlotte clapp our project editor and geneil breeze our copy editor unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. 4 chapter 2 a quick review of the basics in this chapter · some basic commands · working with files · working with directories · · · · · · · filename substitution standard input/output and i/o redirection pipes standard error more on commands command summary exercises this chapter provides a review of the unix system including the file system basic commands filename substitution i/o redirection and pipes some basic commands displaying the date and time the date command the date command tells the system to print the date and time date sat jul 20 14:42:56 edt 2002 date prints the day of the week month day time 24-hour clock the system s time zone and year throughout this book whenever we use boldface type like this it s to indicate what you the user types in normal face type like this is used to indicate what the unix system prints italic type is used for comments in interactive sequences every unix command is ended with the pressing of the enter key enter says that you are finished typing things in and are ready for the unix system to do its thing finding out who s logged in the who command the who command can be used to get information about all users currently logged in to the system who pat ruth steve tty29 tty37 tty25 jul 19 14:40 jul 19 10:54 jul 19 15:52 unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. a quick review of the basics 5 here three users are logged in pat ruth and steve along with each user id the tty number of that user and the day and time that user logged in is listed the tty number is a unique identification number the unix system gives to each terminal or network device that a user has logged into the who command also can be used to get information about yourself who am i pat tty29 jul 19 14:40 who and who am i are actually the same command who in the latter case the am and i are arguments to the who command echoing characters the echo command the echo command prints or echoes at the terminal whatever else you happen to type on the line there are some exceptions to this that you ll learn about later echo this is a test this is a test echo why not print out a longer line with echo why not print out a longer line with echo echo a blank line is displayed echo one two one two three four five three four five you will notice from the preceding example that echo squeezes out extra blanks between words that s because on a unix system the words are important the blanks are merely there to separate the words generally the unix system ignores extra blanks you ll learn more about this in the next chapter working with files the unix system recognizes only three basic types of files ordinary files directory files and special files an ordinary file is just that any file on the system that contains data text program instructions or just about anything else directories are described later in this chapter as its name implies a special file has a special meaning to the unix system and is typically associated with some form of i/o a filename can be composed of just about any character directly available from the keyboard and even some that aren t provided that the total number of characters contained in the name is not greater than 255 if more than 255 characters are specified the unix system simply ignores the extra characters.1 the unix system provides many tools that make working with files easy here we ll review many basic file manipulation commands listing files the ls command to see what files you have stored in your directory you can type the ls command 1modern unix and microsoft windows systems support long filenames however some older unix and windows systems only allow much shorter filenames unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. a quick review of the basics ls read_me names tmp 6 this output indicates that three files called read_me names and tmp are contained in the current directory note that the output of ls may vary from system to system for example on many unix systems ls produces multicolumn output when sending its output to a terminal on others different colors may be used for different types of files you can always force single-column output with the ­l option displaying the contents of a file the cat command you can examine the contents of a file by using the cat command the argument to cat is the name of the file whose contents you want to examine cat names susan jeff henry allan ken counting the number of words in a file the wc command with the wc command you can get a count of the total number of lines words and characters of information contained in a file once again the name of the file is needed as the argument to this command wc names 5 5 27 names licensed by terry wyatt 2330833 the wc command lists three numbers followed by the filename the first number represents the number of lines contained in the file 5 the second the number of words contained in the file in this case also 5 and the third the number of characters contained in the file 27 command options most unix commands allow the specification of options at the time a command is executed these options generally follow the same format -letter that is a command option is a minus sign followed immediately by a single letter for example to count just the number of lines contained in a file the option -l that s the letter l is given to the wc command wc -l names 5 names to count just the number of characters in a file the -c option is specified wc -c names 27 names unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved. a quick review of the basics finally the -w option can be used to count the number of words contained in the file wc -w names 5 names 7 some commands require that the options be listed before the filename arguments for example sort names -r is acceptable whereas wc names -l is not let s generalize by saying that command options should precede filenames on the command line making a copy of a file the cp command to make a copy of a file the cp command is used the first argument to the command is the name of the file to be copied known as the source file and the second argument is the name of the file to place the copy into known as the destination file you can make a copy of the file names and call it saved_names as follows cp names saved_names execution of this command causes the file named names to be copied into a file named saved_names as with many unix commands the fact that a command prompt was displayed after the cp command was typed indicates that the command executed successfully renaming a file the mv command a file can be renamed with the mv command the arguments to the mv command follow the same format as the cp command the first argument is the name of the file to be renamed and the second argument is the new name so to change the name of the file saved_names to hold_it for example the following command would do the trick mv saved_names hold_it when executing an mv or cp command the unix system does not care whether the file specified as the second argument already exists if it does the contents of the file will be lost.2 for example if a file called old_names exists executing the command cp names old_names would copy the file names to old_names destroying the previous contents of old_names in the process similarly the command mv names old_names would rename names to old_names even if the file old_names existed prior to execution of the command removing a file the rm command to remove a file from the system you use the rm command the argument to rm is simply the name of the file to be removed 2assuming that you have the proper permission to write to the file unix® shell programming third edition unix® shell programming third edition isbn 0-672-32490-3 prepared for architect@open-env.us terry wyatt copyright © 2003 by sams publishing this download file is made available for personal use only and is subject to the terms of service any other use requires prior written consent from the copyright owner unauthorized use reproduction and/or distribution are strictly prohibited and violate applicable laws all rights reserved 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